Wild animals have their own epidemics, which are called epizootics, as well as circulating diseases like colds or flus in humans. Overviews of epizootic prevalence in animals are rare in the literature, but epizootics are common in nature.
The positive-sense RNA genome is approximately 7. Known noroviruses fall into five different genogroups GI—GV ; three groups infect humans, the other two mice, cattle and other bovines. All are considered strains of a single species, Norwalk virus.
Noroviruses are extremely contagious, with fewer than 20 virus particles being infectious. They are transmitted directly from person to person and indirectly via contaminated water and food.
After infection, the virus replicates in the small intestinecausing acute gastroenteritiswhich develops 24—48 hours after exposure and lasts for 24—60 hours. The characteristic symptoms include nauseaforceful vomitingwatery diarrhoea and abdominal pain.
Infection is usually self-limiting and rarely severe.
Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans, affecting around million people a year and causing overdeaths, mainly in less-developed countries and in very young, elderly or immunosuppressed people. Hand washing with soap and water is effective in reducing transmission.
Army medical corps who is known for his research on the epidemiology of yellow feverat a time when viruses had only just been discovered. Reed started to study yellow fever in the USA in the s, showing that walking through swampy woods at night was associated with the disease, while drinking water from the Potomac River was not.
Inhe led an army commission under the direction of George Miller Sternberg to investigate yellow fever in Cuba, where the disease was endemic. Building on Carlos Finlay 's work suggesting that yellow fever was transmitted by a particular species of mosquito acting as a vectorReed and co-workers confirmed Finlay's results, and also disproved the popular idea that the disease was transmitted by contaminated objectssuch as clothing or bedding.
The experiments involved the deliberate infection of human volunteers, several of whom died of yellow fever, and Reed pioneered the concept of medical consent.Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.
Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi.
FIGHTING LIPID COATED VIRUSES SUCH AS HERPES VIRUSES WITH BHT by Physicist Gary Wade (11/16/07) An excellent example of a very effective anti-viral drug that is safe for the great majority of people, cheap, and has good side effects, which also has been approved by the FDA for use as a preservative throughout the American industrial food industry is butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
Welcome to the site for Plant Virologists everywhere! This site provides a central source of information about viruses, viroids and satellites of plants, fungi and protozoa, with some additional data on animal viruses and phages with RNA or ssDNA genomes. History. In Jürg Tschopp and his group published a paper on their discovery of granzymes.
In the paper they discussed how they purified, characterized and discovered a variety of granzymes found within cytolytic granules that were carried by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.
1 Kambô: Scientific Research and Healing T reatments by Giovanni Lattanzi - [email protected] (Article translated from Spanish and edited from the original). Virus Research provides a means of fast publication for original papers on fundamental research in virology.
Contributions on new developments concerning virus structure, replication, pathogenesis and evolution are encouraged.