That begins with understanding how companies and markets work, how they compete and how they respond to changes. Understanding the four market structures provides a starting point for judging industry and market news, policy changes and legislation and how it shapes your investing decisions. So what kind of structures and materials define companies and markets? Generally, there are several basic defining characteristics of a market structure:
A market structure comprises a number of interrelated features or characteristics of a market. These features include number of buyers and sellers in the market, level and type of competition, degree of differentiation in products, and entry and exit of organizations from the market.
Among all these features, competition is the main characteristic of a market. It acts as a guide for organizations to react and take decisions in a particular situation.
Therefore, market structures can be classified on the basis of degree of competition in a market. Figure-1 shows different types of market structures on the basis of competition: These different types of market structures as shown in Figure A purely competitive market is one in which there are a large number of independent buyers and sellers dealing in standardized products.
In pure competition, the products are standardized because they are either identical to each other or homogenous. Moreover, the price of products is same in the entire market. Therefore, buyers can purchase products from any seller as there is no difference in the price and quality of products of different sellers.
Under pure competition, sellers cannot influence the market price of products. This is because if a seller increases the prices of its products, customers may switch to other sellers for getting products at lower price with the same quality.
On the other hand, if a seller decreases the prices of its products, then customers may become doubtful about the quality of products. Therefore, in pure competition, sellers act as price takers. In addition, in a purely competitive market, there are no legal, technological, financial, or other barriers for the entry and exit for organizations.
In pure competition, the average revenue curve or demand curve is represented by a horizontal straight line. This implies the homogeneity of products with fixed market price. Figure-2 shows the average revenue curve under pure competition curve: In Figure-2, OP is the price level at which a seller can sell any quantity of products at the fixed market price.
In a purely competitive market, there are a large number of buyers and sellers dealing in homogenous products. A perfectly competitive market is a wider term than a purely competitive market. A perfectly competitive market is characterized by a situation when there is perfect competition in the market.
Some of the definitions of perfect competition given by different economists are as follows: The all sell identical products. The seller is a price taker, not price maker. However, these buyers and sellers cannot influence the market price by increasing or decreasing their purchases or output, respectively.
In addition to conditions implied in pure competition, perfect competition also involves certain other conditions, which are as follows: Large Number of Buyers and Sellers: Refers to one of the primary conditions of perfect competition.
In perfect competition, the number of buyers and sellers is very large. However, level of output produced by a seller or purchases made by a buyer are very less as compared to the total output or total purchase in an economy. Therefore, under perfect competition, sellers and buyers cannot influence the market price.
As a result, the market price remains unchanged, irrespective of any activity of buyers or sellers. Consequently, buyers and sellers are bound to follow the market price.
Refer to another important characteristic of perfect competition.
In perfect competition, all the organizations produce identical products having same quality and features. Therefore, a buyer is free to purchase the product from any seller in the market.
Consequently, the sellers are required to keep the same price for the same product. Free Entry and Exit: Constitutes a significant feature of perfect competition.May 19, · There are four primary types of economic systems in the world: traditional, command, market and mixed.
Each economy has its strengths and weaknesses, its sub-economies and tendencies, and, of course, a troubled kaja-net.com: Will Gemma. The Competition in the Market Structure may be the following categories: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly; Duopoly; Monopoly; The Market Structure can be shown by the following chart: Types of Market Structures and Examples.
Thus, there are . Market structure in economics is categorized on the basis number and type of firms operating in an industry.
Main factors that determine market structure are number of sellers, nature of product, level of knowledge to buyers and sellers, possibility of entry and exit for firms, control over price etc. The interconnected characteristics of a market, such as the number and relative strength of buyers and sellers and degree of collusion among them, level and forms of competition, extent of product differentiation, and ease of entry into and exit from the market.
Four basic types of market structure are (1) Perfect competition: many buyers and sellers, none being able to influence prices. Types of market structure Perfect competition – Many firms, freedom of entry, homogeneous product, normal profit.
Monopoly – One firm dominates the market, barriers to entry, possibly supernormal profit.
Oligopoly – An industry dominated by a few firms, e.g. 5 firm concentration ratio of > 50%. Monopolistic competition – Freedom of entry and exit. Types of Market Structures Posted in CFA Exam, CFA Exam Level 1, Economics There are four basic market structures: perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly.