Progressive Era Essay Progressive Era: Political and Social Reforms Many economic and social changes transformed the American society in the 20th century, including innovations in technology, science, living standards, mass communication, entertainment, gender roles and the role of the government.
Toward A More "Progressive" Criminology? Such truimphalism has been most shrill in the United States where federal politicians, city mayors, and media spokespersons have talked about a new climate of peace and stability in the great metropolitan centers.
Yet, as Currie points out, the celebrations are not so much premature as self-delusionary in that the decline in crime levels is in fact measured against baselines that were already astronomically high. Invariably, crime in the US has merely returned to levels that were unacceptably high in the mids.
According to Currie, the drop in crime cannot be attributed simply to the new order in law enforcement: Evidence of brutal and differential policing practices particularly in relation to Afro-Americans and Hispanics in the inner citynot to mention the manipulation of official police statistics, are indications of some of the negative consequences of policies such as "zero tolerance.
Currie maintains that the supposed drop in crime is in fact a "spin" or "state of denial" which fails to take account of the hundreds of thousands of people confined in prisons--statistically speaking, they are non-people.
He further argues that lower crime must be set against the extraordinary rate of economic growth in the US which has led to significantly better levels of employment and standards of living for large sections of the population.
This of course is not to deny the huge divisions in wealth and income that characterizes US society, nor the secondary negative impact of an improved economy on many "third world" countries - leading in many instances to major social problems, including crime.
Thus, the new triumphalism is somewhat shallow, benefiting those who have a stake in supporting "tougher" approaches to law and order rather than addressing the many problems associated with differential policing and overcrowded prisons.
Currie proceeds to identify the ways in which criminologists can play a more effective role in bringing about positive change in the socio-legal domain. Currie also calls among other things for criminologists to encourage the development of more family support programs, improved programs for prison inmates and targeted anti-poverty initiatives.
According to Currie, criminologists should also state their objections to three strikes and other mandatory sentencing practices as well as to simplistic solutions to crime as advocated by the likes of James Q. Currie concludes with a flourish: First, it suggests the important role that could be played by criminologists in the public domain, especially by putting forward informed views on crime related issues.
Second, and related to this, Currie alerts us to the positive Western progressives essay associated with "deconstructionism"; that is, the careful analytical dismantling of conventional wisdom and received ideas.
Third, it guides us towards what criminologists should be most concerned about: Fourth, it alerts us to the key role that criminologists might play in bringing about positive social change resulting in less crime and a more equitable social order. The "Gods" in question are the continuation of intellectual endeavor, the pursuit of social justice and the provision of short-term humanitarian help.
The Continuation of Intellectual Endeavor Cohen argues that criminologists should be engaged in an active process of theorizing that questions, debunks and takes issue with accepted ideas and political conventions in respect of crime control and law enforcement.
This would seem an appropriate and worthwhile activity if it were not for some of the following drawbacks in contemporary criminology: Such eclecticism may be seen as both a strength and a weakness. At the very least, it serves more to divide rather than unite a discipline that ranges over a vast array of epistemological domains.
The ascendancy in many quarters of biological theories of crime and other individualistic orientations, alongside calls for a revised "radical" and newly asserted post-structural criminology, suggests that it is not possible, as Currie seems to imply from his uncritical references to "criminology", to homogenize the discipline.
Muncie It is important to acknowledge the obstacles set by a highly pluralistic discipline. The fact is that despite its continued focus on eradicating crime, criminology lacks any coherent or unified center.
Its administrative advocates - those most concerned with calculating and reducing the official "crime rate" - might assert that criminology is essentially the "scientific" study of crime and its "causes". Others - especially those who advocate a more "radical" approach - might continue to view "crime" and "criminality" as highly contested descriptors of social phenomena that are grounded in specific social, economic and political conditions.
Yet others - those who attempt to straddle the apparent divide between theory and practice - might dwell on the relationship between matters such as intellectual endeavor and political commitment.
The discipline has retreated into accepted positions about the meaning of crime - indeed, it is interesting to note that Currie makes no mention of white collar, corporate or state crime. However, there are some criminologists who think that the very essence of the discipline should be to keep such matters on the critical agenda see essays in Walton and Taylor ; Bessant, Hil, and Watts, forthcoming.
Moreover, it is arguable that given the discursive power of US domestic and foreign policy and the rise of a near-consensus on the "third way" that there is a pressing need to regenerate discussions about how we come to think about crime and its management.
Recent references to the threat posed by a supposed "underclass" and the fact that criminology has in many ways through its research agendas and policy prescriptions buttressed this category should alert us to the need for a more critically reflexive discipline. In any event, partial critical reflexivity has generally not provided clarity or a great leap forward in understanding how crime, lawbreaking and crime control relates to other spheres in the liberal state.
Is it not revealing of the discipline that as we approach the new millennium that some of its exponents are yet again calling for more attention to the fundamental definitional questions associated with concepts like crime and criminality and for a more wide ranging theoretical approach to such matters?
This is a startling rallying call given the seemingly endless questioning of such concepts and "mainstream" positions by the sociologists of deviance in the s, the New Criminologists in the same decade and, more recently, by post-structuralists.
Currie's apparent failure to acknowledge the somewhat transfixed and confused state of criminology especially around its supposed "core" interests reveals a certain acceptance of an oblique "crime problem" constituted chiefly around his violent crime.
The latter point is demonstrated by the ease with which some left-leaning criminologists assume a certain level of crime among the working class without really questioning the veracity of official statistics, or examining the processes of "policing" in the liberal state see for example: Downes ; Reiner ; Pitts and Hope Indeed, what "violence" means is itself a matter for debate especially when we consider the indirect violence to families and neighborhoods brought about through deleterious government policies.
Careers based on the accumulation of large grants - often for undertaking "safe" evaluative studies - and the requirement to engage "practical" crime prevention issues has often resulted in the blunting of the "critical edge". Empiricist talk of performance indicators, quality assurance, cost effectiveness and evaluative outcomes has placed severe strain on open and lively intellectual debate within the discipline.
Such developments reflect on the production of knowledge and what counts as accepted or acceptable research Silbey While such debate is part of the ebb and flow of any discipline the s have, for a variety of reasons, generated a much more low-key and considerably less "confrontational" debate about crime and its management.
Essay on Progressivism. Thesis statement: it is hypothesized that Progressivism was a wide and varied movement that changed American values and lifestyles having everlasting impact on American history.. Progressivism. Progressivism, ranging from to , was a well-planned and well-organized movement in the United States having . More Essay Examples on Civilization Rubric. Like all great civilizations in the world – Chinese, Mesopotamian, Indus Valley and Nile valley civilization western civilization has also gone through its highs and lows - Timeline of Western Civilization Essay introduction. Many believe that 19th and 20th century witnessed the prime of the western civilization where all the innovative revolutions. 'Sickened by the silence': Western progressives accused of staying mute about Iran protests Canadian social activist Naomi Klein, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and U.K. Labour Leader Jeremy Corbyn.
By ignoring the many constraints acting upon and shaping the discipline Currie is in danger of seeing criminology as some sort of homogenous, free-floating operation which could have some influence upon public debate if only it tried harder.Progressive Presidents Essay; Progressive Presidents Essay.
Words 2 Pages. Show More. Progressive Presidents A progressive president is one that modernized the United States in a way that brought them to a new level. There was a great need for the progressives during the early s.
In America’s population was around 76 . Toward A More "Progressive" Criminology? A Rejoinder to Elliott Currie. Richard Hil. Elliott Currie’s essay, "Reflections on Crime and Criminology at the Millennium," () provides an eloquent and timely antidote to the "triumphalism" that has greeted the supposed fall in crime levels in a number of western .
champions of reform were divided over this issue, urban Progressives recognized saloons were headquarters of political machines, little sympathy to movement, rural reformers believed they could clean up morals by eliminating it. As I argue in a recent essay, to grasp what has happened, what may come, and how to revive our economic health, we must grasp the significant moral differences between the free market political economy of the Founders and the interventionist political economy of the progressives.
Writing your essay Grades and test scores are important when applying for college admission, but it takes a lot more than "the numbers" to tell your story. The essay is a chance to give us a snapshot of who you are – your voice, your experiences, your goals.
Remember that your essay is reviewed for both admission as well as scholarship . Progressivism is a term that encompasses a wide spectrum of social movements that include environmentalism, labor, agrarianism, anti-poverty, peace, anti-racism, civil rights, women's rights, animal rights, social justice and political ideologies such as anarchism, communism, socialism, social democracy, and liberalism.